About the Journal

Brain-X is a peer-reviewed, online open access journal that publishes the cutting-edge discoveries and technologies works providing novel insights into all aspects of brain, neuroscience and neurology. Interdisciplinary studies utilizing approaches of mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, materials, or information science to address the issues of brain, neuroscience and neurology are particularly encouraged.

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We cordially invite you to submit manuscripts to Brain-X . The Article Publication Charge is waived for accepted manuscripts from 2023-2025

Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open Access

Flexible, ultrathin bioelectronic materials and devices for chronically stable neural interfaces

  • First Published: 11 December 2023
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This review summarizes recent advances in engineered materials, device designs, and integration schemes for neural interfaces which facilitate brain signal recording and stimulation and offer long-term, stable, high-channel-count, and high-resolution operation. The advances summarized in this review will guide the future direction of this technology and provide a basis for next-generation chronic neural interfaces with long-lived high-performance operations.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

The antianxiety effects of koumine and gelsemine, two main active components in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Gelsemium : A comprehensive review

  •  10 December 2023

Graphical Abstract

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This article reviews the antianxiety effects of the Chinese herbal medicine Gelsemium under different test conditions and discusses recent advances in the antianxiety mechanisms of its two alkaloids, confirming the antianxiety potential of Gelsemium alkaloids. This review will provide theoretical support for pharmacological research on Gelsemium , contribute to developing and applying Gelsemium -based drugs, help the treatment of anxiety disorders, and promote the development of medicine.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Calcitonin gene‐related peptide and persistent corneal pain: A  trigeminal nerve sensitization perspective

  •  6 December 2023

Graphical Abstract

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High calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels cause central sensitization, which may be associated with the overactivation of glial cells and various pain receptors. CGRP induces MAPK14 activation and nitric oxide (NO) secretion on the surface of neurogliocytes, and the produced NO stimulates CGRP secretion through the N-type calcium channel. CGRP increases N -methyl-d-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open access

Virtual external stimulation promotes the transformation of the brain state from early mild cognitive impairment to health

  •  29 November 2023

Graphical Abstract

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To evaluate how external stimulation of brain regions affects the brain state, our study used the exact controllability theory to determine potential targets and applied a whole-brain dynamic model via virtual stimulation to promote the transformation of the brain state from early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) to health. The findings reveal the underlying brain mechanisms of cognitive decline in patients with EMCI, which could help in designing more effective therapeutic interventions.

ISSUE INFORMATION
Open access

Issue Information

  •  21 October 2023
REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Understanding the brain with attention: A survey of transformers in brain sciences

  •  12 October 2023

Graphical Abstract

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This survey provides a comprehensive review of the development and application for Transformers in brain sciences. It covers eight widely concerned brain science scenarios to provide vital details and discussions for the latest Transformer researches. By exploring the current challenges and potential research directions, it would be expected to provide a convenient reference for researchers in related fields.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Understanding the role of inflammation in sensorineural hearing loss: Current goals and future prospects

  •  12 October 2023

Graphical Abstract

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This paper describes the role of inflammation in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Inflammation affects SNHL primarily via cochlear immunity, microcirculation, vasospasm, and glutamate metabolism, often accompanied by immune cell infiltration, altered blood flow, ischemic damage, and synaptic injury. A comprehensive anti-inflammatory approach is undesirable, and studying inflammation-related mechanisms will aid the search for potential targets in SNHL.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open access

Edge‐centric functional network reveals new spatiotemporal biomarkers of early mild cognitive impairment

  •  12 October 2023

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In contrast to existing studies that focus on the correlations between brain regions, our study is based on the high-order edge network and innovated to explore the correlation between brain region pairs from the perspective of space and time, search for new biomarkers, and explore the pathogenesis of early mild cognitive impairment, which is conducive to delaying its development to Alzheimer's disease and promoting medical developments.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Reactive oxygen species targeted biomaterials for spinal cord injury therapy

  •  10 October 2023

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This review provides an extensive overview of the recent advancements in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-targeted biomaterials tailored for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment, emphasizing their ability to effectively clean excessive ROS, modulate inflammation, and reduce secondary injuries. The review also showcases their potential for future translational research involving SCI clinical therapies, which will enable the ongoing enhancement and optimization of these biomaterials to benefit individuals with SCIs.

PERSPECTIVE
Open access

Understanding the heterogeneous immune repertoire of brain metastases for designing next‐gen therapeutics

  •  1 October 2023

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Advanced cancer patients often develop brain metastases, but their molecular and immunological features remain poorly understood due to challenges in biopsy. This perspective highlights recent advances in immune landscape profiling of brain metastases, with an emphasis on tumor-reactive T cells, and summarizes innovative technologies for tracking tumor dynamics and designing targeted therapies.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

The mechanism of bone healing after traumatic brain injury

  •  28 September 2023

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This review discusses the fundamental mechanisms underpinning the accelerated bone regeneration seen in individuals with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), emphasizing the importance of the nuanced interplay between TBIs and the bone remodeling process.

PERSPECTIVE
Open access

ChatGPT: The cognitive effects on learning and memory

  •  20 September 2023

Graphical Abstract

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The integration of ChatGPT into the domains of learning and memory holds the potential to transform the entire field of education. This article explores the potential positive and negative effects of increased engagement with artificial intelligence, offering strategies for optimizing its benefits while mitigating its drawbacks, and highlights areas that can benefit from further research. In this way, it seeks to ensure that ChatGPT operates as an adjunctive educational tool that complements human cognitive processes without damaging them.

METHODS ARTICLE
Open access

Prediction of the hand function part of the Fugl‐Meyer scale after stroke using an automatic quantitative assessment system

  •  22 August 2023

Graphical Abstract

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This study aims to quantitatively assess the motor function of the hand in stroke patients with a self-developed system named the Hand Automatic Quantitative Assessment System (HAQAS) using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. There were high correlations between features automatically collected by the HAQAS and Fugl-Meyer scales in all the sub-items. Our proposed automatic FMA system is easy and transparent to use in clinical settings and would greatly reduce the workload of physical therapists and clinicians.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open access

Target localization intervention and prognosis evaluation for an individual with mild cognitive impairment

  •  22 August 2023

Graphical Abstract

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A single brain region state dynamics model was developed to simulate blood oxygen level-dependent signals of a patient with early mild cognitive impairment. Multiple complex network centralities were comprehensively considered to locate the intervention targets, and a multi-brain collaborative control scheme was designed and verified at the brain region and subnetwork levels.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Nanomedicines for Alzheimer's disease: Therapies based on pathological mechanisms

  •  28 July 2023

Graphical Abstract

Description unavailable

The present review details how nanomedicines can treat AD by overcoming the abnormal aggregation of Aβ and Tau, reducing neuronal apoptosis, alleviating neuroinflammation and promoting neuronal regeneration.

ISSUE INFORMATION
Open access

Issue Information

  •  27 July 2023
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open access

Tribo-ferro-optoelectronic neuromorphic transistor of α -In2 Se3

  •  18 July 2023

Graphical Abstract

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This paper proposes a tribo-ferro-optoelectronic neuromorphic transistor with multimodal synaptic plasticity by combining a triboelectric nanogenerator and a two-dimensional ferroelectric α-In2 Se3 transistor. The device enables associative learning and Boolean logic through the synergy of mechanical displacement, ferroelectric polarization, and light illumination.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Potential roles of transformers in brain tumor diagnosis and treatment

  •  13 July 2023

Graphical Abstract

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Transformers play an essential role in the brain tumor segmentation of MRI images, the MRI- and histopathology-based grading of brain cancer, brain tumor molecular expression prediction, the classification of primary brain metastasis sites, voxel-level dose and brain tumor radiotherapy outcome prediction, synergistic prediction, and the pathway deconvolution of drug combinations. This review aimed to discuss the increasing applications of Transformers in real-time brain tumor detection and therapy, indicating their broad prospects and potential.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open access

Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of children's brain development in phonological processing and speeded naming

  •  10 July 2023

Graphical Abstract

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Mediation effect analysis revealed that the fMRI imaging multivariate features of the inferior frontal gyrus as well as the posterior cingulate gyrus developed with age in children aged 2–8  years, resulting in higher phonological processing and speeded naming scores in children.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open access

3D printing‐based full‐scale human brain for diverse applications

  •  5 April 2023

Graphical Abstract

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This paper aims to develop a set of three-dimensional (3D) printing approaches to fabricate customized full-scale human brain models for surgery training as well as specialized brain patches for wound healing after surgery. Brain patches with complex geometries can be directly printed in a stimuli-responsive yield-stress support bath, while full-scale human brain models are created by an inverse fabrication strategy.

ISSUE INFORMATION
   Open access
Issue Information
  • First Published:  3 March 2023

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The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to CrossRef.

REVIEW ARTICLE
Open access

Nanomedicines for Alzheimer's disease: Therapies based on pathological mechanisms

  •  28 July 2023

Graphical Abstract

Description unavailable

The present review details how nanomedicines can treat AD by overcoming the abnormal aggregation of Aβ and Tau, reducing neuronal apoptosis, alleviating neuroinflammation and promoting neuronal regeneration.

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